An Absolute Roman Wonder: The Santa Maria Fountain in Cosmedin

Both Christian and pagan articles have been found in by the load by archaeologists and restorers searching the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. The nearby basilica is mainly for the marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità, (Mouth of Truth) located in its portico. Due to the fact that the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain (1719) was situated off the beaten track, it remained mostly unknown. Since the nearby area was depressing and mostly uninhabited, people were not particularly interested in visiting it. twf102__25055.jpg It was a this time that Pope Clement XI commissioned the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri to put up a water fountain to modernize the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. August 11, 1717 marked the date when work on the church’s foundation commenced. The blessing of the first rock to be placed in the foundation was followed by medals being thrown in bearing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water.

Original Water Delivery Techniques in Rome

Rome’s 1st raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, citizens living at higher elevations had to depend on local springs for their water. Over this period, there were only 2 other innovations capable of providing water to higher areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which gathered rainwater. To supply water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they implemented the new approach of redirecting the flow from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground network. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. The manholes made it easier to thoroughly clean the channel, but it was also possible to use buckets to pull water from the aqueduct, as we observed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he owned the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he passed away. It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t sufficient to meet his needs. Through an orifice to the aqueduct that ran under his property, he was set to reach his water demands.

What Fountains Contribute to Your Life

Any space can be enhanced by the sights, sounds and improved air quality produced by outdoor fountains. They provide many health benefits and contribute to a lovely environment to entertain loved ones. Different people, however, find that their fountain is important to them for many personal reasons. Maybe it takes you back to a special area you once visited. When you see it, you may think back to a special person you once knew. Or perhaps you want to get one to remind you of someone you have lost. In any case, it is something you will look fondly on for many years to come.

California's Garden Water Fountains Analysis and Results

In February 2014, a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages was approved in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to create such a regulation. The purpose is to have people drinking more water and other natural beverages by increasing the price of soda and other sugar-sweetened drinks. Research was done to assure that individuals of all races and economic classes had access to thoroughly clean, operating drinking fountains. Through content collected by a mobile GPS app, researchers were able to ascertain the condition of active water fountains in Berkley. This information was cross-referenced with demographic data on race and income obtained from the US Census Community Study database. Evaluations were made between the location and demographic data, showing whether class differences affected availability to clean, functional water fountains. The neighboring demographics of each water fountain location was made note of, while additionally determining whether race or income rates made a huge difference in the state of repair of each fountain. The fact that the fountains were working was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, given that quite a few were in need of cleaning and repair.

Things to Keep in Mind When Deciding Where to Put Your Fountain

One of the first things to think about when selecting a water fountain is exactly where you intend to put it. Roundabouts and driveways are wonderful spots for them.

It is also possible to acquire a fountain made especially to be mounted against a wall. If you look on the back, you will see a bar or some other piece to affix it against a wall, grate or fence. Bare in mind when you install your fountain that you must firmly attach it to a wall to avoid having it fall over in high winds and getting damaged.

The garden sculpture style, yet another option, is lovely for parks or any place people are inclined to hang out to enjoy the fresh air and scenery.

Eco-Friendly Fountains: Good for the Planet

Are you looking to beautify your residence? Well, think about adding elegance and value to your residence by installing a solar water fountain. They are the same as electric fountains in that they help with one's overall well-being but they also offer financial benefits.

Despite initial expenses, the long-term investment in this type of fountain is worth it. Because your fountain will not be fueled by electrical energy, there will be no need to be concerned about any power outages.

Running water fountains will lead to a spike in your electric bill. The short-term benefits may not be noticeable, but keep in mind that the increased worth of your home will be later on.

Spending more money on our electric bills is not the only downside - the environment is highly affected too. Becoming “green” is just one of the advantages of setting up a solar water fountain running only on the power of the sun. Using solar energy to run a water feature is not only favorable to our environment but it also heats and cools our homes.

This type of fountain needs less maintenance than others. As there is no electrical motor that can get clogged, little cleaning is required. And since there is little cleaning to do, you will have more time to play!

The Effect of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Gardens

The arrival of the Normans in the later half of the eleventh century significantly transformed The Anglo-Saxon ways of living. The Normans were much better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. But nevertheless home life, household architecture, and decoration were out of the question until the Normans taken over the entire population. Most often built upon windy summits, castles were basic constructs that enabled their inhabitants to spend time and space to offensive and defensive strategies, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings generally placed in only the most fecund, broad valleys. The tranquil practice of gardening was unrealistic in these dismal bastions. Berkeley Castle is probably the most complete model in existence at present of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture. It is said that the keep was introduced during William the Conqueror's time. A spacious terrace meant for exercising and as a means to stop attackers from mining below the walls runs about the building.

On one of these terraces lies a charming bowling green: it's coated in grass and flanked by an old yew hedge that is created into the shape of rough ramparts.


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