Santa Maria in Cosmedin: A Roman Fountain Worth Experiencing

Both Christian and pagan artifacts have been found in by the load by archaeologists and restorers searching the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. The well-known marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth) is located in the portico of the basilica nearby. p-736_p-737_art__70023.jpg When the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain was constructed in 1719, it was off the beaten track and mostly unknown as a result. For the most part, visitors stayed away from the area because it was a bleak and neglected part of the city. As part of an effort to refurbish the piazza outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was instructed by Pope Clement XI to design a fountain. August 11, 1717 marked the date when work on the church’s foundation started. The first stone to be placed in the foundation was consecrated and medals bearing the illustrations of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were also thrown in.

Ancient Outside Water Fountain Designers

Commonly working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and discerning scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-faceted people from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century. Leonardo da Vinci as a inspired intellect, inventor and scientific expert exemplified this Renaissance artist. He methodically documented his ideas in his currently renowned notebooks, following his mind boggling fascination in the forces of nature inspired him to examine the characteristics and mobility of water. Combining creativity with hydraulic and horticultural expertise, early Italian water fountain engineers transformed private villa settings into brilliant water displays full of symbolic meaning and natural beauty. The brilliance in Tivoli were created by the humanist Pirro Ligorio, who was famed for his skill in archeology, engineering and garden design. Well versed in humanistic themes as well as classical technical texts, some other fountain designers were masterminding the extraordinary water marbles, water attributes and water pranks for the numerous estates around Florence.

Admire the Splendor of the Cascade Water Fountain at the Garden of Chatsworth

The Cascade garden fountain creates an spectacular garden focal point at the rear of Chatsworth House. Twenty-four irregularly positioned stone steps in a series extend 200 yards towards the house and down the hillside. Entirely gravity fed, the Cascade too is dependent on a 17th century French concept. Created for the first Duke of Devonshire in 1696, this water fountain has continued unchanged ever since. The Cascade House overlooks the fountain, where water slowly flows downward. The building, decorated on the outside with marine creatures in bas-relief, is a small-scale construction. Water pressure to the Cascade can be increased on special occasions, causing the Cascade House to become part of the Cascade spectacle, as water runs through conduits on its rooftop and from the jaws of its carved underwater creatures, prior to continuing along the Cascade.

The size of every step was made slightly different and means that the sound of the water falling fluctuates as it descends the Cascades, offering a wonderful and wonderful complement to a stroll through the gardens. Back in 2004, Chatsworth's Cascade was recognized by historians at Country Life as the best water fountain in England.

From Where Did Fountains Originate from?

A water fountain is an architectural piece that pours water into a basin or jets it high into the air in order to supply drinkable water, as well as for decorative purposes.

The main purpose of a fountain was originally strictly functional. Inhabitants of urban areas, townships and small towns used them as a source of drinking water and a place to wash, which meant that fountains had to be linked to nearby aqueduct or spring. Until the late 19th, century most water fountains operated using the force of gravity to allow water to flow or jet into the air, therefore, they needed a supply of water such as a reservoir or aqueduct located higher than the fountain. Artists thought of fountains as amazing additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and honor the artist responsible for creating it. Animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks were often used by Romans to beautify their fountains. To replicate the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages introduced fountains to their designs. Fountains played a significant role in the Gardens of Versailles, all part of French King Louis XIV’s desire to exercise his power over nature. The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were extolled with baroque style fountains constructed to mark the place of entry of Roman aqueducts.

Since indoor plumbing became the standard of the day for clean, drinking water, by the end of the 19th century urban fountains were no longer needed for this purpose and they became purely ornamental. Gravity was replaced by mechanical pumps in order to permit fountains to bring in clean water and allow for beautiful water displays.

Modern-day fountains serve mostly as decoration for community spaces, to honor individuals or events, and enhance entertainment and recreational activities.

Getting to Know About Self-Contained Water Fountains

Stand-alone fountains are ideal for anyone looking for affordability and flexibility. All of the pieces are included with the fountain including the plumbing and pump. One name for a fountain having its own water source is known as “self-contained”.

Given that they do not need much work to install, self-contained fountains are perfect for patios and porches. They are easily transportable too in case you later decide to move it somewhere else.

The first issue the landscaper will need to determine is whether or not the land is flat. Any bumps can simply be leveled by your landscaper. Your water feature is now prepared for setup and the addition of water. The remaining step is to plug it into a socket, a solar panel, or batteries.

Anyone who does not have direct access to a wellspring or external plumbing should think about a self-contained fountain. Lots of people position them in the middle of the garden, but they can really go anywhere. There are a number of materials that can be used to craft them including cast stone, metal, ceramic, and fiberglass.

Explore the World’s Biggest Water Displays

The King Fahd Fountain (built in 1985) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, has the tallest continually -running fountain on the planet. Reaching incredible heights above the Red Sea, this fountain propels water 260 meters (853 feet) in the air.

Coming in 2nd is the World Cup Fountain located in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002) with water blasting 202 meters (663 feet).

Occupying third place is the Gateway Geyser (1995), situated close to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri. With water reaching 192 meters (630 feet) in the air, this fountain is the tallest in the United States.

Next is the fountain found in Karachi, Pakistan (Port Fountain) which shoots water up to 190 meters (620 feet) in height.

Number 4 is Water at Fountain Park (1970) situated in Fountain Hills, Arizona - it can attain up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are running, even though it normally only reaches up to 91 meters (300 feet).

The Dubai Fountain, opened to the public in 2009, is located next to the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building. It dances to pre-recorded music every half hour and propels water to the height of 73 meters (240 feet) - it also has extreme shooters which reach 150 meters (490 feet), though these are only used on special occasions.

Making it in the top 8 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra (1970) which measures 147 meters (482 feet).

The last impressive fountain to make the list is the Jet d’Eau (1951) in Geneva, Switzerland, measuring 140 meters (460 feet).

The Early, Largely Ignored, Water-Moving Alternative

Unfortuitously, Agrippa’s amazing plan for lifting water was not referred to much after 1588, when Andrea Bacci acknowledged it in public. It could be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s earliest modern aqueducts made the unit useless when it was connected to the Villa Medici in 1592. The more likely conclusion is that the system was deserted once Franceso di Medici, Ferdinando’s brotherexpired in 1588, leading him to give up his job as cardinal and return to Florence where he accepted the throne as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. It could go against gravitation to lift water to Renaissance landscapes, providing them in a way other late 16th century concepts such as scenographic water displays, musical water fountains and giochi d’acqua or water caprices, were not.


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