The Early, Largely Ignored, Water-Moving Solution

The admiration Agrippa’s water-lifting innovation received by Andrea Bacci in 1588 was short-lived. It may have turned out to be outdated when the Villa Medici was set to obtain water from the Acqua Felice, the early modern conduit, in 1592. Its application could very well have been limited but Camillo Agrippa’s creation attained a prominent place in history as the most remarkable water-lifting hardware of its type in Italy prior to the contemporary era. Renaissance gardens of the late 16th century were home to works such as musical fountains, scenographic water displays and water caprices (giochi d’acqua), but these weren’t filled with water in ways that violated the force of gravity itself.

A Genuine Roman Masterpiece: The Santa Maria Water Fountain in Cosmedin

Archaeologists and restorers alike have stumbled upon a wealth of heathen and Christian relics on the grounds of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. Located in the portico of the nearby basilica one can find the famous marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth). Built in 1719, the Santa Maria in Cosmedin water fountain was relatively unknown and situated far from sight making it hard to visit. For the most part, visitors stayed away from the area because it was a sad and deserted part of the city. As part of a project to modernize the piazza outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was commissioned by Pope Clement XI to design a fountain. The task of laying down the church’s foundation began on August 17, 1717. Medals bearing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and of St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were thrown in the foundation following the blessing of the first stone.

Where did Landscape Fountains Begin?

A fountain, an amazing piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also launch water high into the air for an extraordinary effect.

From the beginning, outdoor fountains were simply there to serve as functional elements. Water fountains were connected to a spring or aqueduct to supply potable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Up until the nineteenth, fountains had to be more elevated and closer to a water source, including aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to benefit from gravity which fed the fountains. 50287sl__20905.jpg Designers thought of fountains as amazing additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and honor the artist responsible for creating it. Roman fountains often depicted images of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. To replicate the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages added fountains to their designs. Fountains enjoyed a significant role in the Gardens of Versailles, all part of French King Louis XIV’s desire to exert his power over nature. The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were extolled with baroque style fountains made to mark the arrival points of Roman aqueducts.

Since indoor plumbing became the norm of the day for fresh, drinking water, by the end of the 19th century urban fountains were no longer needed for this purpose and they became purely ornamental. The creation of special water effects and the recycling of water were 2 things made possible by replacing gravity with mechanical pumps.

These days, fountains adorn public spaces and are used to honor individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

Characteristics of Garden Statuary in Archaic Greece

Archaic Greeks were renowned for providing the first freestanding statuary; up until then, most carvings were formed out of walls and pillars as reliefs. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi were seen by the Greeks to embody beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising firmness to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, brawny, and naked. Around 650 BC, life-size forms of the kouroi began to be observed. A substantial period of transformation for the Greeks, the Archaic period brought about newer forms of state, expressions of artwork, and a higher comprehension of people and cultures outside of Greece. Conflicts like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos, and other wars involving city-states are suggestive of the disruptive nature of the time period, which was similar to other periods of historical upset. However, these conflicts did not significantly hinder the advancement of the Greek civilization.

Water Delivery Strategies in Ancient Rome

With the development of the very first elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, individuals who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to rely only on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. If people living at higher elevations did not have access to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to depend on the other existing technologies of the time, cisterns that collected rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from under ground. Starting in the sixteenth century, a newer system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sections to provide water to Pincian Hill. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Even though they were initially developed to make it possible to service the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi began using the manholes to accumulate water from the channel, commencing when he acquired the property in 1543. It appears that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t enough to fulfill his needs.

Thankfully, the aqueduct sat below his residence, and he had a shaft established to give him access.

Visit the World’s Tallest Water Features

Referred to as the King Fahd Fountain (1985) found in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, it is the highest continuously functioning fountain in the world. Attaining incredible heights above the Red Sea, this fountain propels water 260 meters (853 feet) in the air.

The Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002), comes in second with water levels of 202 meters (663 feet).

Occupying third place is the Gateway Geyser (1995), located close to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri. Considered the highest fountain in the United States, it jets water 192 meters (630 feet) into the sky.

With water ejected 190 meters (620 feet) in the air, the Port Fountain in Karachi, Pakistan makes the list.

Number 4 is Water at Fountain Park (1970) situated in Fountain Hills, Arizona - it can attain up to 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are working, even though it normally only hits up to 91 meters (300 feet).

The Dubai Fountain which made its debut in 2009 is situated next to tallest building worldwide, the famous Burj Khalifa. It dances to pre-recorded music every half hour and rockets water to the height of 73 meters (240 feet) - it also has extreme shooters which reach 150 meters (490 feet), though these are only used on special occasions.

Number 7 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, finished in 1970, launching water 147 meters (482 feet) high.

And finally we have the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951) which measures 140 meters (460 feet) in height.

The Results of the Norman Invasion on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design

Anglo-Saxons felt extraordinary adjustments to their daily lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. The Normans were better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. But before centering on home-life or having the occasion to consider domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Most often built upon windy summits, castles were straightforward constructs that enabled their occupants to devote time and space to offensive and defensive schemes, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings generally installed in only the most fecund, extensive valleys.

The bare fortresses did not provide for the peaceful avocation of gardening. The best specimen of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent today is Berkeley Castle. The keep is rumored to have been developed during the time of William the Conqueror. As a method of deterring assailants from tunneling underneath the walls, an immense terrace encircles the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an ancient yew hedge trimmed into the figure of crude battlements.


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