California's Garden Water Fountains Research and Results

The 1st US city to pass a tax on sweet drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to motivate a lot more people to select healthier options, such as water. First, the city conducted an analysis to examine whether residents had easy access to working drinking water fountains. By developing a mobile GPS application, analysts were able to get data on Berkley’s drinking water fountains. p_701__86203.jpg Analysts then used US Census data to find out even more about the economic and racial issues that affected the city. By cross-referencing the water fountain sites with the demographic facts, they were able to ascertain whether access to functioning fountains was class dependent. They were able to uncover the demographics of areas surrounding active fountains, as well as the cleanliness and maintenance of fountains across different neighborhoods. The fact that the fountains were working was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, since quite a few were in need of maintenance and repair.

Santa Maria in Cosmedin: A Roman Fountain Worthy of Seeing

Both Christian and pagan articles have been found in by the load by archaeologists and restorers searching the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. The nearby basilica is largely famous for the marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità, (Mouth of Truth) located in its portico. The situation of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain (1719) was not in a well-known neighborhood and was, therefore, not oftentimes visited. For the most part, visitors stayed away from the area because it was a bleak and desolate part of the city. In order to refurbish the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Pope Clement XI commissioned an Italian architect by the name of Carlo Bizzaccheri to design a water fountain for the area. August 11, 1717 marked the date when construction on the church’s infrastructure commenced. Medals bearing the imagery of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and of St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were thrown in the foundation following the blessing of the first stone.

The Grace of Simple Garden Decor: The Water Wall Fountain

These days you can just put your garden water fountain near a wall since they no longer need to be hooked to a pond. Due to the various possibilities available, it no longer necessary to contend with excavations, difficult installations or cleaning the pond. There is no plumbing work required with this type self-sufficient water feature. Regularly adding water is the only requirement. Your pond and the proximate area are sure to get dirty at some point so be sure to empty the water from the basin and fill it with clean water.

Garden wall fountains come in lots of different materials, but they are normally made of stone and metal. The most suitable material for your fountain depends entirely on the design you choose. It is best to look for garden wall fountains which are easy to install, handmade and lightweight. In addition, be sure to purchase a fountain which requires minimal maintenance.

Even though installing certain fountains can be hard, the majority require little work because the only parts which need special care are the re-circulating pump and the hardware to hang them. Little exertion is needed to enliven your garden with these kinds of fountains.

The Influence of the Norman Conquest on Anglo Saxon Garden Design

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was drastically changed by the arrival of the Normans in the later eleventh century. At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. But before centering on home-life or having the occasion to consider domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Castles were more standard designs and often built on blustery hills, where their people spent both time and space to practicing offense and defense, while monasteries were large stone buildings, commonly situated in the widest, most fruitful hollows. Relaxing activities such as gardening were out of place in these destitute citadels. The early Anglo-Norman style of architecture is portrayed in Berkeley Castle, which is conceivably the most unscathed sample we have. The keep is said to date from the time of William the Conqueror. A large terrace intended for exercising and as a way to stop attackers from mining under the walls runs about the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an aged yew hedge trimmed into the figure of crude battlements.

"Old School" Garden Fountain Creative Designers

Water fountain designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the late 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one.

Leonardo da Vinci as a imaginative genius, inventor and scientific virtuoso exemplified this Renaissance creator. He methodically documented his observations in his now recognized notebooks, following his tremendous curiosity in the forces of nature led him to explore the qualities and motion of water. Modifying private villa configurations into ingenious water exhibits full of symbolic significance and natural wonder, early Italian fountain designers combined resourcefulness with hydraulic and horticultural ability. Known for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden creations, Pirro Ligorio, the humanist, delivered the vision behind the magnificence in Tivoli. For the various mansions close to Florence, other fountain developers were well versed in humanistic subject areas and classical technical texts, masterminding the extraordinary water marbles, water attributes and water humor.

Fountains And Their Use In Ancient Minoa

Archaeological digs in Minoan Crete in Greece have uncovered several varieties of conduits. These delivered water and extracted it, including water from waste and storms. The chief materials employed were rock or terracotta. When made from clay, they were typically in the format of canals and circular or rectangle-shaped pipes. The cone-like and U-shaped clay pipelines that were discovered have not been spotted in any other society. Terracotta conduits were utilized to distribute water at Knossos Palace, running up to three meters below the floors.

The clay water pipes were furthermore utilized for accumulating and saving water. This required the terracotta conduits to be capable of holding water without leaking. Subterranean Water Transportation: It’s not really known why the Minoans needed to transport water without it being seen. Quality Water Transportation: Given the evidence, a number of historians advocate that these conduits were not attached to the common water delivery system, offering the palace with water from a distinctive source.

Water-lifting System by Camillo Agrippa

In 1588, Agrippa’s water-lifting invention attracted the attention and compliments of Andrea Bacci but that turned out to be one of the last references of the device. Only years afterward, in 1592, the early contemporary Roman aqueduct, the Acqua Felice, was hooked up to the Medici’s villa, possibly making the unit obsolete. Its success might have been brief but the system devised by Camillo Agrippa was nevertheless different from anything designed in Italy during the time frame that separated the modern years from classic Rome. Renaissance landscapes of the late sixteenth century happened to be home to works including musical fountains, scenographic water displays and water caprices (giochi d’acqua), but these were not brimming with water in ways which defied gravity itself.


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