Santa Maria in Cosmedin: A Roman Water Fountain Worth Viewing

Archaeologists and restorers alike have stumbled upon a wealth of pagan and Christian relics on the site of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. The nearby basilica is largely famous for the marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità, (Mouth of Truth) located in its entryway. When the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain was created in 1719, it was off the beaten track and generally unknown as a result. p_421b__17840.jpg It was said that there was nothing worth seeing in this area because it was abject and abandoned making it an unfriendly place to visit. It was then that the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was commissioned by Pope Clement XI to build a fountain in the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in an attempt to make the area more popular. August 11, 1717 marked the date when construction on the church’s foundation began. After blessing of the first stone, medallions bearing the illustration of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and of St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were tossed into the foundation.

Your Outdoor Fountain: Maintenance & Routine Service

Installing an outdoor wall fountain requires that you bear in mind the dimensions of the space where you are going to install it. It will need a strong wall to support its total weight. Also keep in mind that smaller areas or walls will require a lightweight fountain. An electric socket near the fountain is required to power the fountain. Since there are many types of outdoor wall fountains, installation procedures vary, but the majority include easy to follow instructions.

The general outdoor wall feature is available in an easy-to-use kit that comes with everything you need and more to properly install it. A submersible pump, hoses and basin, or reservoir, are included in the kit. The basin, if it's not too large, can easily be concealedin your garden among the plants. Other than the regular cleaning, little upkeep is required once your outdoor wall fountain is installed.

Replenish and clean the water on a regular schedule. Rubbish such as twigs, leaves or dirt should be cleared away quickly. Safeguarding your outdoor wall fountain from the freezing winter climate is vital. Your pump may break when subjected to freezing water during the cold weather, so it is best to bring it indoors to avoid any damage. Simply put, your outdoor fountain will be a part of your life for many years with the proper care and maintenance.

The Ideal Multi-Tiered Water Fountain for your Garden

Fountains with more than one tier are very easy to find, and popular above all in gardens. Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain typically have lots of tiered fountains. The courtyards of buildings and public squares are just a couple the places you might see one. All tiered fountains are enchanting, although some have much more lavish carvings than others.

Traditional or classic surroundings are great spots for them. The fountain should blend right into the setting as if it has been there since the start.

Outdoor Garden Fountain Engineers Through History

Multi-talented individuals, fountain artists from the 16th to the late 18th century typically worked as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, was notable as a inventive master, inventor and scientific virtuoso. He carefully reported his findings in his now celebrated notebooks about his investigations into the forces of nature and the qualities and motion of water. Brilliant water displays packed with symbolic significance and natural charm converted private villa settings when early Italian fountain designers fused creativity with hydraulic and landscaping skill. The humanist Pirro Ligorio offered the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli and was distinguished for his abilities in archeology, architecture and garden design. For the many lands near Florence, other water feature developers were well versed in humanist subject areas and classical scientific texts, masterminding the incredible water marbles, water features and water antics.

Beautiful Water Fountains for Kitty Cats

When your cat hears water flowing in the kitchen, does he come running? Does he sip water from the toilet or feel the water in his bowl before drinking it? Strange as these behaviors sound, they actually show a cat’s natural instinct to avoid still standing water. As a matter of fact, they do not posses a strong natural instinct to hydrate.

Undomesticated cats get adequate moisture from the meat they ingest. As a result, felines never developed the drive to drink water. That said, household cats do in fact need additional water, so it is up to you to provide it. With a cat fountain, you can be sure your cat has enough water available.

If you put one in, you can rest easy knowing your pet has convenient access to water. You can pick one you know your cat will like since they come in so many unique versions. Fountains can have continuously flowing water for freshness, or a bowl that fills up as your cat empties it.

Wall Fountains: The Minoan Civilization

Archaeological digs in Minoan Crete in Greece have discovered varied kinds of conduits. These were applied to provide cities with water as well as to lessen flooding and remove waste material.

They were commonly made from clay or stone. Whenever clay was chosen, it was frequently for waterways as well as water pipes which came in rectangle-shaped or round shapes. There are two good examples of Minoan terracotta piping, those with a shortened cone shape and a U-shape that haven’t been caught in any civilization since that time. Terracotta water lines were put down under the flooring at Knossos Palace and utilized to distribute water. The pipelines also had other functions such as collecting water and diverting it to a central location for storage. Therefore, these piping had to be effective to: Subterranean Water Transportation: It is not quite understood why the Minoans needed to transport water without it being noticed. Quality Water Transportation: Some historians believe that these pipes were employed to generate a different distribution system for the residence.

The Dispersion of Water Fountain Design Technology

Dissiminating pragmatic hydraulic facts and water feature design ideas all through Europe was accomplished with the printed papers and illustrated publications of the time. An internationally celebrated pioneer in hydraulics in the later part of the 1500's was a French fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. His experience in creating landscapes and grottoes with incorporated and ingenious water features began in Italy and with mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, towards the closure of his lifetime, he penned “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a publication that became the essential text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs were elaborated as well as updates to essential classical antiquity hydraulic discoveries in the book. Prominent among these works were those of Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, a mechanical way of moving water. Sunlight heating liquid in two containers hidden in a room adjacent to an decorative water feature was shown in one illustration.

The end result: the fountain is activated by the heated liquid expanding and ascending up the conduits. Designs for pumps, water wheels, water features and outdoor ponds are also included in the book.

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